Philosophy begins in wonder. Perhaps philosophy begins with individualism. The issue of reductionism in philosophy has puzzled philosophers for a long time. It has been thought that the mind can be reduced to the atoms of the brain. Yet this theory is false. The mind or consciousness is not reducible to the atoms of the brain. We cannot fully comprehend the source of consciousness through such materialist reasoning. In order to understand what the mind is we must use intuition or intuitive reason. We contemplate within ourselves to understand that the mind is of an immaterial nature. All materialist explanations of the mind end with the question of how can matter induce mind and consciousness. What gives rise to consciousness is the thing which consciousness is dependent on or the cause of consciousness. Socrates said one should know thyself and According to the Alcibiades to know oneself is to know one’s soul. The soul in ancient times meant the same thing as the mind means today. Of course a person could not have sense perception if one did not have the corresponding sense organs such as the eyes ears nose and tongue without these organs one could not see hear smell and taste. Yet one must be conscious of one’s senses in order to perceive them. And one could not have sense perception without consciousness. And the source and cause of consciousness has yet to be determined by science. This source and cause lies in the most profound part of the mind which can only be grasped intuitively and is beyond reason. Reason can only get us so far. Reason is the law of causality. It was a mistake of the enlightenment to presuppose that everything can be explained through reason. We must comprehend intuitively what the mind really is and what the source of the mind really is. This goes beyond reason. These methods of understanding the mind are unpopular in modern times. Yet when scientific inquiry is pushed to the limit in attempting to understand the mind researchers will pursue other methods to understand the mind. 

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